A Bone Fracture
A bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone is cracked or broken. It is a break in the continuity of the bone. While many fractures are the result of high-force impact or stress, bone fractures can also occur because of certain medical conditions that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis.
A fracture may be complete or partial and is commonly caused by trauma due to a fall, motor vehicle accident or sports injury. Thinning of the bone due to osteoporosis in the elderly can also cause bones to break easily. Overuse injuries are a common cause of stress fractures in athletes.
Types of fractures
- Simple fracture : The fractured pieces of bone are well aligned and stable Unstable fracture- the fragments of the broken bone are misaligned and displaced.
- Open (compound) fracture : A severe fracture in which the broken bones protrude through the skin. This type of fracture is more prone to infection and requires immediate medical attention.
- Greenstick fracture : A fracture unique to children, where one side of the bone is broken while the other is bent.
The upper arm is made up of the humerus bone. The head of the humerus fits into a shallow socket in your scapula (shoulder blade) to form the shoulder joint. The humerus narrows down into a cylindrical shaft and joins at its base with the bones of the lower arm to form the elbow joint.
A break in a bone that makes up the shoulder joint is called a shoulder fracture.
The hip joint is a “ball and socket” joint. The “ball” is the head of the femur or thighbone, and the “socket” is the cup-shaped acetabulum. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain-free movement in the joint.
The femur or thigh bone is the longest and strongest bone in the body, connecting the hip to the knee. A femur fracture is a break in the femur. The distal femur is the lower part of the thigh bone which flares out like an upside-down funnel and its lower end is covered by a smooth, slippery articular cartilage that protects and cushions the bone during movement.
The lower leg is made up of two long bones called the tibia and fibula that extend between the knee and ankle. The tibia or shinbone is the larger of the two bones. It bears most of the body’s weight and helps form the ankle joint and knee joint.
A crack or break in the tibia is referred to as a tibial fracture.